After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Management 2. Principles of Management 3. Features 4. Concepts.
Essay on the Meaning of Management:
In today’s world Management is considered as an important discipline like Medicine, Engineering, Technology and Accounting. Because, the success of an organisation is depending on effective management. In this regard, the management should be able to anticipate changes and their impact and take appropriate measures to deal with these changes.
Management is a wide term. It carries different meanings depending on the context in which it is used. Each definition has merit and highlight important aspects of management.
The General terms of management getting efforts made by others or through by their subordinates. Similarly the management is to identify and sort out the problem of manager in the organisation because of different terminology.
The term management is basically prescribes the group of people are working together for the attainment group goals efficiently or effectively in the manner is known as management.
These group of people who are very much interested in the activity and process of management to bring out the effort of an many individual and between the groups. The main objectives of the management is to earn profit by investing in many sources. Without an investment the management unit do nothing.
The management must bring out the relationship between the resources. These resources either may be materials, money and people in the organisation. The management synchronises the people working through others to accomplish the organisational goal.
To assign the duty to the subordinates, to carry out the operations from the top level to lower level of the organisation. Without the decision the management can’t do nothing. So the right decision must be taken by the managers at the right time.
Apply defined management as “an art of getting things done through subordinates”. Subordinate are those people who are working under guidance or a supervisor.
“Management is a problem solving process of effectively achieving organisational objectives through the efficient use of scarce resources in a changing environment.
John F. Mee:
Management is the “art of securing maximum results with a minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity for the employer and employee and give the public the best possible service.”
Koontz and O’Donnell:
Management is the “Creation and Maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals.”
Sir Charles Reynolds:
Management is “the process of getting things done through the agency of a community. The functions of management are the handling of a community with a view to fulfilling the purposes for which it exists.”
To manage is “to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate, and to control.
“Management is the function of an enterprise which consists of planning, organizing, directing and controlling of various activities to attain objectives. These are called as fundamental managerial functions. It can be depicted as follows.”
Essay on the Principles of Management:
The principle can be defined as a fundamental statement or truth providing a guide to thought or action. The fundamental statement tells what results are expected when the principle is applied.
Good management principles should be the following:
1. Practical, which means they can be applied almost any time in the organization’s life and be appropriate.
2. Relevant to the brand forms of organizational structure.
3. Consistent in that for similar sets of circumstances, similar results will occur.
4. Flexible in that their application should take into account particular differences or changes in the conditions that affect the organization.
Essay on the Features of Management:
The following are the features of management:
1. Management is Universal:
Management is required in every form of group activity; the approach and style of management may differ from one organization to another. They are equally applicable in all types of organizations. Social, religious or business.
2. Management is a Distinct Entity:
The identity of management is quite distinct from its various functional activities, techniques and procedures. The important function of manager is more to get the work done by others rather than his own work.
3. Management is All Pervading:
Management is applicable at all levels of the organization. Everyone in a business whether at the lower or middle or at the top level has to take decisions and correct decision making is an important part of management.
4. Management is a Social Obligation:
Management aims at optimum utilization of some resources of an organization for the benefit of the community as a whole. Besides the progress of business, management is also concerned with development of cordial relations between people workings a group.
5. Management is Concerned with Group Efforts:
Management is very much less concerned with individual efforts. It is concerned with groups organized formally or informally. It is both a science and an art of regulating the efforts of other people.
6. Management deals with Achievement of Pre- Determinate Objectives:
All management activities have to be goal-oriented and result-oriented. Good management implies pre-determined objectives and the success of management depends upon economical fulfillment of the targets within reasonable time.
7. Management is a System of Authority:
Management in reality is the authority to make and enforce rules. Supervisors go on commanding and holding the subordinates responsible for the execution of assigned tasks. There is a chain of authority distribution and the responsibility always goes with the authority.
8. Management is an Invisible Force:
Management is a positive activity. It is a cause and the fulfillment of the objectives concerned in the result there of. Management can be felt and not seen and that too, only when the things go wrong.
9. Management is both an Art and a Science:
It has its rules, principles and laws having universal applicability. But the result of all managerial policies always depends upon the personal skill of the manager and as such besides being a science, it very much takes the form of an art. With the growth and development in the principles and techniques of management, it is now very much becoming a profession.
10. Human Touch is Inseparable from Management:
Managerial techniques are used by human beings as tools to achieve satisfaction of human wants and to achieve the planned goals. Human behaviour is by far the most unpredictable.
11. Management is an Integrated Process:
It is an integrated process of human and physical resources in a manner that leads to effective performance.
12. Management is a Dynamic Function:
Business environment goes on changing every day due to social, economic, political, and technical reasons. No business organization can afford to continue with its out-of-date policies and procedures in the changing environs. So policies and procedures of management are quickly changed according to the changing business environment.
Essay on the Concepts of Management:
There are both concepts for many years. Management is an art; and Management is a science. J. Paul Getty said: Management cannot be systematized or practiced according to a formula. It is an art, even creative art. But others disagree.
1. Management as an Art:
Art may be defined as a skill or knowledge in a particular field of activity or a knock or method of doing a thing.
According to Terry:
“Art is bringing about of a desired result through the application of skill. A number of scientific methods have been developed to facilitate decision-making, but these techniques can be used only in respect of problems of a numertic quantitative nature. But all these problems regarding management are not of a numeric nature, but relate to people. Problem of this type can only be resolved by applying past experience, common sense, managerial skill and human understanding. So, this part of decision-making raises management to the level of an art”.
It can be learnt to perfection only through continuous practice. So art is related with the creation of objectives. The art of management can be shown as follows:
The process of management is also an art since it also involves the use of know-how or skills in solving various problems of business.
The Manager also develops his own personal skills and knowledge for correct decision-making. He has his own style and approach to achieve pre-determined goals.
The process of management is directed towards the accomplishment of concrete results. For example production results have to be achieved, this is the concrete and which management has to accomplish by the art of management.
Management is one of the most creative arts, as it requires a vast knowledge and certain innovating, initiating and integrating skills in relation to production. Features of production can be brought together by anyone but the management knows the art of securing the maximum profit at minimum cost. It creates new things and improves upon the old things.
Improvement through Practice:
A manger practices the art of managing business. He gets perfection in the art of managing through continuous practice, as in the case of teaching, music etc.
2. Management is a Science:
A science may be defined as “representing knowledge gathered by observation and experiment, critically tested, systematized and brought under general principles”.
Management as a science refers to the application of scientific methods in making decisions and evaluating different courses of action. It involves obtaining of complete, valid and reliable information in respect of the problem under consideration, before making a decision.
Science refers to a subject that can be proved with the help of an experiment in the laboratory when it comes to management. Today’s management is regarded as a science that is the work is analysed in a scientific manner and the workers are classified into different categories just efficient.
Inefficient and more efficient based on their performance. The person who has introduced scientific principles in management is F.W. Taylor and his principles are called scientific management.
Management has been developed by thinkers and practitioners of management after excess of experimentation knowledge of the science of management will enable the manager to correctly identify the issues and problems facing him and to determine the course of action which will best meet the situation.
The managers should now apply his knowledge in the given situation this may necessitate modification of the theory and principles learnt by him.
The managers can now successfully perform a job only if he is able to identify and diagnose the problem correctly and apply his knowledge to solve them in a manner which is the best under the given circumstances.
Management as a science develops knowledge, explains cause and effect relationships lay down universally accepted principles and predicts on the basis of knowledge of relationship between variables and finally we can conclude that management as a science is definitive.
3. Management is a Combination of Both Art and Science:
Management may be said to be a unique combination of science and art. Management is a science because it evolves and uses certain universally applicable principles derived from a body of knowledge. It is an art because it requires continuous practice to achieve the desired results. The skill of the manager greatly affects the results.
Theory and practice, both are equally useful for good management, knowledge of principles if necessary but practice is essential to make it perfect. Robert, N. Hilbert observes, “In the area of management science and art are two sides of the same coin.”
So management is a process, which combines art as well as science in getting the desired results in the best possible manner. Sir Walter Puckey indicated that ‘Management can be an art scientifically applied or a science artfully applied.
Management as a Profession:
The profession is defined as calling in which one professes to have acquired a specialized knowledge which is used either in instructing, guiding, or advising others. Louis D. Brandis defined profession as “a field where training is intellectual in nature, a field in which one enters for the sake of others and in which financial reward is not considered as a measure of success.”
The basic element in the definition of management is the “specialized knowledge” required by education. Anyone cannot become as a profession of doctor same status of position without education.
In this regard, Mary Parker Follet expressed:
“Management as a profession.” But, many successful managers and successful entrepreneurs never went to university or college and sometimes not even to high school. It is therefore, difficult to reconcile this background with the knowledge and education necessary for a profession.
Anyhow, the field of management is becoming more and more specialized, requiring formal educational course as foundation for unsuccessful mangers. So it can be said “management is a profession.” The degree of professionalism in management can be measured against some of the elements or characteristics that are basic ingredients for defining professionalism.
These elements are:
1. Cone of a skill, a specialized education in which a professional must be proficient.
2. Formal body of knowledge: The skill must be based on a well-defined formal body of knowledge, which must be transferable and achieved through formal learning, training and experience. These learning techniques must be intellectual in nature so that simple learning a vocational skill is not enough to make it a profession.
3. A profession is a continuous discipline of study so that through proper research and investigation new techniques are required to improve and enhance the profession.
4. A professional must possess certain personal qualifications as far as maturity, sophistication, patience, and analytical ability is concerned. He must be “professional” in his behaviour.
5. There must be a well-accepted authority like an institution or association, which certifies the professional on the basis of his skill and knowledge and has the right to admit or reject admission into the profession. For example: “American Medical Association.”
6. A profession has a recognized status in society, and hence must have a code of professional conduct, which is homogeneous in nature and applicable to all members of the same profession.
7. A professional must operate with a professional spirit and a sense of mission, which is in tune with the aims and objective of the society, lie must be willing to give unselfish service to the community and respond positively to the growing needs of the society in his area.
The American Management Association (AMA) expressed that, when the Management meet all or at least most of these basic characteristics it may be called as Management as a profession.