Archive | Taxation

Shifting and Incidences of Tax

 The Meaning of Impact, Incidence and Shifting: When a tax is levied, its first impact will be felt by the person, who actually makes the tax payment. He may be an income-receiver, property owner or a buyer or seller of goods arid services. He may bear the tax himself. In some instances, he may be […]

The Principle of Equity in Distribution of Tax Burden

After reading this article you will learn about the principle of equity in distribution of tax burden. There has been little interest among philosophers and statesman in the theories of taxation, until the commencement of the eighteenth century. With the advent of the eighteenth century, for several hun­dred years, in the field of public finance […]

Concept of Optimal Taxation: 3 Criterions

This article throws light upon the three main criterions for defining the concept of optimal taxation. The criterions are: 1. Minimization of Resource Cost 2. Equity Criteria 3. Efficiency Criteria. Criteria # 1. Minimization of Resource Cost: A tax system usually involves cost of collection to the authorities and a resource cost to the taxpayers. […]

Equitable Distribution of Tax Burden: 3 Principles

This article throws light upon the three main principles for equitable distribution of tax burden. The principles are: 1. The Cost of Service Principle 2. The Benefit Principle 3. Ability to Pay Theory. 1. The Cost of Service Principle: This principle suggest that the cost incurred by the government in providing public goods to satisfy […]

Taxable Capacity of a Nation: Meaning, Significance and Limits

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning and Definitions of Taxable Capacity 2. Types of Taxable Capacity 3. Significance 4. Factors 5. Measurement and Limit. Meaning and Definitions of Taxable Capacity: Taxable capacity is a highly misleading and controversial concept in the theory of taxation. Different writers tried to define this concept […]

Favour and Against Proportional Taxation

After reading this article you will learn about the arguments in favour and against proportional taxation. Arguments in Favour of Proportional Taxation: Proportional taxation has been advocated by the classical econo­mists as a protest against the injustice of the old system of exemp­tions and privileges. Adam Smith, stating that taxation should be adjusted to the […]

Merits and Demerits of Progressive Taxation

After reading this article you will learn about the merits and demerits of progressive taxation. Merits of Progressive Taxation: Progressive taxation has been universally accepted as the best sys­tem of taxation. It is based on the application of principle of diminish­ing marginal utility of income and ability to pay. As income increases, marginal utility of […]

Top 4 Theories of Tax Shifting

This article throws light upon the top four theories of tax shifting. The theories are: 1. Concentration Theory 2. The Diffusion Theory 3. Demand and Supply Theory of Incidence 4. Musgrave’s Approach. Tax Shifting # 1. Concentration Theory: This theory was advocated by the physiocratic school of thought in France during the middle of the […]

Incidence and Shifting of Tax: 12 Factors

This article throws light upon the twelve main factors determining the incidence and shifting of tax. The factors are: 1. Elasticity of Demand 2. Elasticity of Supply 3. Price acts an Engine of Shifting 4. Tax Area 5. Time Period 6. Coverage of Tax 7. Availability of Substitutes 8. Nature of Demand for Commodities 9. […]

3 Major Economic Effects of Taxation | Public Revenue

Dalton discusses the economic effect of taxation under the following three heads: 1. Effect of Taxation on Production, 2. Effect of Taxation on Distribution 3. Other Effects. 1. Effect of Taxation on Production: According to Dalton effect of taxation on production can be in the following three ways: (a) Effect on ability to work, save […]

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