In this article we will discuss about Accounting Standard (AS) 5 with regard to changes in accounting estimates and accounting policies.
AS-5 on Changes in Accounting Estimates:
1. As a result of the uncertainties inherent in business activities many financial statement items cannot be measured with precision but can only be estimated. The estimation process involves judgements based on the latest information available. Estimates may be required, for example, of bad debts, inventory obsolescence or the useful lives of depreciable assets. The use of reasonable estimates is an essential part of the preparation of financial statements and does not undermine their reliability.
2. An estimate may have to be revised if changes occur regarding the circumstances on which the estimate was based, or as a result of new information, more experience or subsequent developments. The revision of the estimate, by its nature, does not bring the adjustment within the definitions of an extraordinary item or a prior period item.
3. Sometimes, it is difficult to distinguish between a change in an accounting policy and a change in an accounting estimate. In such cases, the change is treated as a change in an accounting estimate, with appropriate disclosure.
4. The effect of a change in an accounting estimate should be included in the determination of net profit or loss in:
(a) The period of the change, if the change affects the period only; or
(b) The period of the change and future periods, if the change affects both.
5. A change in an accounting estimate may affect the current period only or both the current period and future periods. For example, a change in the estimate of the amount of bad debts is recognised immediately and therefore affects only the current period. However, a change in the estimated useful life of a depreciable asset affects the depreciation in the current period and in each period during the remaining useful life of the asset. In both cases, the effect of the change relating to the current period is recognised as income or expense in the current period. The effect, if any, on future periods, is recognised in future periods.
6. The effect of a change in an accounting estimate should be classified using the same classification in the statement of profit and loss as was used previously for the estimate.
7. To ensure the comparability of financial statements of different periods, the effect of a change in an accounting estimate which was previously included in the profit or loss from ordinary activities is included in that component of net profit or loss. The effect of a change in an accounting estimate that was previously included as an extraordinary item is reported as an extraordinary item.
8. The nature and amount of a change in an accounting estimate which has a material effect in the current period, or which is expected to have a material effect in subsequent periods, should be disclosed. If it is impracticable to quantify the amount, this fact should be disclosed.
AS-5 on Changes in Accounting Policies:
Accounting policies are the specific accounting principles and the methods of applying those principles adopted by an enterprise in the preparation and presentation of financial statements.
1. Users need to be able to compare the financial statements of an enterprise over a period of time in order to identify trends in its financial position, performance and cash-flows. Therefore, the same accounting policies are normally adopted for similar events or transactions in each period.
2. A change in an accounting policy should be made only if the adoption of a different accounting policy is required by statute or for compliance with an accounting standard or if it is considered that the change would result in a more appropriate presentation of the financial statements of the enterprise.
3. A more appropriate presentation of events or transactions in the financial statements occurs when the new accounting policy results in more relevant or reliable information about the financial position, performance or cash flows of the enterprise.
4. The following are not changes in accounting policies:
(а) The adoption of an accounting policy for events or transactions that differ in substance from previously occurring events or transactions, e.g., introduction of a formal retirement gratuity scheme by an employer in place of ad hoc ex-gratia payments to employees on retirement; and
(b) The adoption of a new accounting policy for events or transactions which did not occur previously or that were immaterial.
5. Any change in an accounting policy which has a material effect should be disclosed. The impact of, and the adjustments resulting from, such change, if material, should be shown in the financial statements of the period in which such change is made, to reflect the effect of such change.
Where the effect of such change is not ascertainable, wholly or in part, the fact should be indicated. If a change is made in the accounting policies which has no material effect on the financial statements for the current period but which is reasonably expected to have a material effect in later periods, the fact of such change should be appropriately disclosed in the period in which the change is adopted.