Social Measurement Techniques: 7 Techniques

This article throws light upon the seven social measurement techniques for determining social costs. The techniques are: 1. Surrogate Valuation 2. Survey Method 3. Restoration or Avoidance Cost 4. Appraisals 5. Court Decisions 6. Analysis 7. Outlay Cost. Social Measurement: Technique # 1. Surrogate Valuation: When a direct determination of a desired value is not possible, the value is estimated [...]