This article throws light upon the five basic managerial functions required to achieve goals of an organisation. The basic managerial functions are: 1. Planning 2. Organising 3. Staffing 4. Directing 5. Controlling.
Managerial Function # 1. Planning:
Planning is a future course of action. It is the most basic function of management. Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done, when and where it is to be done, how it is to be done and by when.
Planning is not only thinking ahead but also preparing for the future. According to Koontz O’Donnell “Planning is deciding in advance what to do. How to do it, When to do it, and who is to do it. Before carrying out the work one has to prepare a detailed plan and if he carries out the work with the help of the plan success can be assured.”
Planning involves a number of characteristic and it is easy to identify the work and achieve success only when they are properly carried out. The first step in planning is a thinking process. Secondly it involves forecasting the future work and it may encourage some people to achieve success.
Planning involves the accomplishment of group objectives (i.e) the work of an organisation is an assorted group of widely varied human beings with a different, personality, attitude, clearing, motivation etc.
Planning gives way to selection between alternatives and a choice is made by the management with regard to the objectives of the business for example profitability, growth, customer satisfaction, manpower development, prestige etc.
Next, the successful running of organisation involves watching of its resources with the opportunity in the business environment lies in planning has to be flexible. Lastly planning involves selection of achievable objectives and formulation of simple and realistic policies, programmes etc. that in planning is an integrated process.
Managerial Function # 2. Organizing:
Organisation is the process of so combining the work, which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution, that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient, systematic, positive and coordinated application of the available effort.
The term organisation is derived from the word ‘Organism’ which means formation of a group which has been integrated that their relation to each other. Organisation is defined in the proper channel in which the large number of people have the mutual contact with all other, are engaged in a complexity of tasks, maintaining discipline, everything will be made under mutual understanding by each other.
From the above detail we can come to know that the organisation means in the group of communication with each other relation with the human beings. This implies each member of people must sharing their information, goals, assumption and attitudes to analyse its decision.
Organisation involves different number of people in different group, analyses various tasks and decision to run it efficiently and effectively, in the organisation.
As a organisation process, the organising function includes the following:
a. Allocation of Work,
b. Activities are formed in the different groups.
c. Performed duties are assigned.
d. Delegation of authority.
e. Mutual relationship.
A business enterprise is like any other group in society people come together to work in it for the satisfaction of various needs wherever men work together a conflict of interest may develop between them sooner or later.
Similarly a business enterprise is also not free from the conflicts arised from competition rivalry and opposition among its workers and yet the facts remains that a business enterprise can accomplish its economic and other objectives only when it works as a team.
The enterprise must develop a sound organisation which is objectives and just and which has the capacity to unify all its workers to act with speed and supportiveness.
Organisation means a structure with its parts so integrated that their relation to each other is governed by their relation to their own. An organisation has two important, ingredient, parts and their relationship between one another and has an organisation as a whole.
Organisation is a constant managerial function with the object of arranging the truth into a manageable unit and defining the formal relationship among the people who are assigned the various tasks. This is also referred to as the dynamic concept of the organisation.
As a process the organising function includes:
(a) Division of Work,
(b) Group of activity, and
(c) Assignment of duties.
Managerial Function # 3. Staffing:
Staffing is the function of hiring and retaining a suitable work force for an organization at all levels. It includes the recruitment, training, development, compensation and evaluating employees, and maintaining this work force with proper incentives and motivation.
The term staffing is derived from the word staff. So the staff means member, worker or employees in the organisation. Staffing is the function of management which is related with Recurring, Selecting, developing, maintaining and utilising the manpower such as to obtain the organisational goals effectively and efficiently in the organisation.
Staffing is a process of selecting the right kind of employee at the right places and the right times doing all the efficient work in the organisation. All the individual employees benefits can be legibly maintained in the process of staffing.
Staffing function mainly includes:
c. Training and development,
d. Performance appraisal.
e. Job evaluation, and
The function of staffing is hierarchically linked with the human resources in organisation. First process he can recruited and he has been elected after then he will sent for training and development and his performance is maintained in the organisation and utilizing job evaluation and he can be perform well and better in the organisation.
Managerial Function # 4. Directing:
It is concerned with leadership, communication, motivation and supervision. These help to achieve the organizational goals.
The term directing means the instructions people what to do and seeing that they do it as best they can. Mostly directing includes performing tasks and duties, explaining procedures, issuing orders providing on the job instruction. Supervising the performance and correcting derivatives.
Directing is mainly concerned with the production of performance and utilise the success of any organisation. Basically directing is used to direct or to supervise or to control the subordinates in the organisation. Mainly directing is predetermined with the word supervision, leadership, motivation and communication. But they are same and they are different from each other.
Directing is concerned with the action part, and the entire organisational performance revolves around it without the directing it may not be possible to run out the business or enterprise to accomplish an organisation. Directing involves manager, at the lower and middle level, they have to perform these function towards to the Top level manager.
Directing is continuous function and ever present function. Directing function is basically deals with the manager who can direct, supervise, motivate to guide, instruct, advise and educate the subordinates. Directing is the link between all the managerial function namely planning, organising, staffing, coordinating and controlling.
Managerial Function # 5. Controlling:
This function helps to see whether all activities are carried out in a way of planning, already made. Therefore, standards established for work performance will be compared to the measuring performance. Then corrective action would be made if necessary.
Action without control will not give the desire results. Control means the power or authority to direct order or restrain. It also implies a standard of comparison to the results of any operation or experiment. Control is a mechanism. According to which something or someone is guided to follow the predetermined course.
Control Requires Two Things:
a. A clear cut and specific plan according to which any work is to proceed.
b. It is possible to measure the results of operation with a view to detecting deviation. The control process tends to work like a thermostat fitted in the refrigerator to keep the temperature steady.
The manager also perform such a function is set, out the plan makeable the preparation for putting into effective orders action and keeps a watch on the way things proceed. If he notices any deviations he quickly moves into action to correct it.
The factors that are essential to the operation of control system are:
c. Delegation of authority.
d. Information feedback.
The control process involves three basic steps namely:
a. Determination of standards.
b. Measurement and appraisal of performance.
c. Correction of Deviation.
To achieve success any organisation requires an ideal control system which should have suitability, feedback, forward planning, objective and internal corrective mechanism as its characteristics.