Some of the most important features of management are: 1. Group Activity 2. Goal Oriented Process 3. Continuous Process 4. Dynamic Process 5. Integrating Force 6. Intangible Force 7. Universal 8. Human Focused Activity

9. Unrelated to Proprietorship 10. Involves Decision-Making 11. Strongly Integrates Organisational Resources 12. Multi-Disciplinary 13. Situational 14. Social Activity 15. General Process

16. Separate Existence 17. Management as a Profession 18. Management is both-A Science and an Art 19. Purposeful  20. Creative 21. Organized Activities 22. Existence of Objective 23. Working with and through People.

Features of Management

Features of Management – Top 7 Features

Features of management are as follows:


1. Group Activity:

Management is a group activity because it comes into existence only in a group which has two categories of people – those who manage (known as managers) and those who are managed (known as operatives). Because of group activity, people are placed in superior-subordinate relationships. A superior directs his subordinates to perform specified activities to achieve group’s objectives while subordinates perform those activities.

2. Goal-Oriented Process:

Management is a goal-oriented process. A goal is an end result or a set of end results which is to be achieved by the management process. For example, business organizations adopt management processes to produce desirable products, to earn profit, and to discharge social responsibility.


3. Continuous Process:

Management is a continuous process. In a continuous process, there is no apparent beginning or end of a particular activity. Elements of management process (known as management functions) — planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling — can be separated from each other but a manager may perform all these functions in a single day but not necessarily in the sequence presented above.

4. Dynamic Process:

Management is a dynamic process. A dynamic process is one in which changes are incorporated according to requirements. A static process does not need any change; once it is set, it goes on working. Since management is a dynamic process, managers have to make changes in their functions based on environmental changes.


This change may even require reversing old decisions. For example, after the economic liberalization in India in 1991, many organizations sold those businesses which did not match their core competence and acquired those businesses which were in accordance with their core competence.

Similarly, with the widespread use of information technology (IT) in business, stock exchanges have replaced the concept of physical delivery of shares by electronic delivery, known as dematerialized shares. In fact, there are several changes in organizational decisions because of environmental changes.

5. Integrating Force:

Management works as an integrative force. An integrating force is one that keeps various related elements together and in proper form just like cement keeps various building materials like bricks, sand, steel, etc. together as a building. In an organization, management integrates various resources — human, physical, and financial — to achieve organizational objectives.


6. Intangible Force:

Management is an intangible force which cannot be touched or seen but it can be inferred by the way in which an organization works. The quality of management as an intangible force is perceived by analyzing how the organization is achieving its objectives.

7. Universal:

Management is universal. This feature of management has two implications. First, management is relevant in all types of organizations- business or non-business, public or private, small or large. Second, management is relevant throughout the world – USA, Russia, India, etc. However, management practices may differ from country to country because of differences in their cultures.

Features of Management – 11 Essential Features

The following are the features of management:


1. Management is a human activity – Management is itself a human activity which is a continuous process. It starts with the establishment of business undertaking and continues till the undertaking continues. Management is required at every stage of business activity.

2. Management is a social activity – Management is basically a social activity because management is mainly related with the human activities of an enterprise. The statement of Professor E.F.L. Brech may be kept in mind in this context. He said, “The presence of human factor characterises the social process of management.”

3. Management is a general process – Management is a general process which directs and controls the activities of a group of persons and not of an Individual only. Therefore, the management may be regarded as general activity and not an individual activity. That is why Professor Koontz O’ Donnell has referred to ‘Formal organised groups’, Professor L. A. Appley has referred to ‘The efforts of other persons’ in their definitions.


4. Attainment of pre-determined goals – A very important characteristic of management is that aims at the attainment of pre-determined goals. The whole process of management is dedicated to the attainment of goals pre-decided by the enterprise. The management is of no use and aims if there are no pre-determined goals in the organisation, and pre-determined goals are of no use and aims if proper management of the activities is not there.

5. Separate existence of management – The concept of management has its separate existence because it does not work itself but the work is done through other. How to get the things done through others is the main subject matter of the management.

6. Management as a profession – Today, with the development of trade and industry, the management has been recognised as a profession. The efficient managers are the full-fledged professionals. Now-a-days because the term ‘Management’ has all the characteristics of the profession it requires a systematic study for quite a long period to be an efficient manager. Management has its own principles, policies and rules. Therefore, it may well be to concluded that the management is a profession.

7. Management is required at all levels Management is not specific function required art any specific stage. It is a continuous process which goes on right from the establishment of the organisation till the accomplishment of the goals of the enterprise.


8. Management is universal – At the earlier stage of development of business, the management was an individual activity. The owners of the enterprise used to manage the activity of his business himself. But the time now has changed. The business has become more and more complicated and with the development of business, the scope of management has also increased considerably. Now the management is universal phenomenon.

9. Management is both-A science and an art – Management is both, the science and an art;. As a science, it determines UK-goals of an enterprise and establishes the relationship between causes and effects. As an art the management specifies the ways for the attainment of these goals. It tells how the particular goal can be achieved and particular part of enterprise can be managed more effectively and more efficiently.

10. It is not necessary for an owner to be a manager – The time has gone when the management of business activities was limited to the owner of business enterprise. Now-a-days, management has been a profession and a service. The business can be managed by the experts of their field. It is not necessary for the owner of business enterprise to be its manager also. He can get tin-services of experts.

11. Management is an intangible activity – The management is not a tangible activity of business enterprise. It is the direction and control of the business activity which can be felt but cannot be seen or touched

Features of Management – 10 Important Features Highlight the Nature of Management

The features which highlight the nature of management are as follows:

1. Management is a Universal Process – Management is a universal process because they apply more or less in every situation and are equally applicable in every organisation business, government and others. Every manager in the organisation performs the same basic functions irrespective of his rank of position.


2. Management is Purposeful – Management exists for the achievement of specific objectives. It has no justification to exist in the absence of objectives. It is a means directed towards the accomplishment of the determined goals which may be economic or non-economic. All activities of management are goal oriented because they provide justification for the existence, of an organisation. The success of the management is measured by the extent to which the desired objectives are attained.

In a developing country like India the significance of management is that there is a great need for management, higher efficiency and higher productivity is the only hope of the people, more than 60% of whom are living below the poverty line. The root cause of India’s backwardness lies in the underutilization and misutilization of the countries recourses. The most important reason for the poor performance of our development plans has been inadequate and inefficient machinery.

In the absence of competent and devoted management, the investment is not been properly utilized, management is the key for un-looking the faces of economic growth. It is the crucial factor in economic and social development. Managers are the custodians of the hopes and aspiration of the masses.

Management aims at the optimum utilization of available resources to secure productive performance. Managers are the true leaders of the economic machinery of a nation. They enrich the economic life of the country by purposeful administration of resources and also develop human talent. What we lack is not skill or capital but management. Therefore the development of managerial talent must receive top priority.

3. Management is Creative – Management makes things happen which would not happen otherwise. The job of the management is to make reluctive enterprise out of human and material resources. Its basic purpose is the optimum utilisation of resources, the manager seeks to secure the objectives with the highest efficiency at the minimum possible cost, effectiveness and efficiency are the yardsticks against which the managerial performance is appraised.

4. Management is Integrative Force – The essence of management lies in the coordination of individual efforts into a team. It is an integrated process as its element are intertwined. It reconciles the individual goals with organisational goals as a unifying force, it creates a whole i.e. more than the sum of individual parts.

5. Management is a Group Phenomenon – Management involves the use of group efforts in pursue of common objective. People join groups to achieve what they cannot achieve individually. It is a distinct activity of getting things done rather than ‘doing’ itself. Management exercises important influence upon human behaviour in organised action.

6. Management is a Social Process – In management people are the centre of managerial process. It is only in relation to people to conceive management not in relation to things or machine. It is a social process because it is concerned with interpersonal relations. It is the pervasiveness of the human element which gives management its special character as a social process.

7. Management is Multidisciplinary – Under dynamic conditions management has to deal with human behaviour and so it depends upon the wide knowledge derived from several disciplines like engineering sociology, physiology economics anthropology etc. The chief char­acteristic of the management is the integration and application of knowledge and analytical approaches developed by numerous disciplines.

8. Management is a Continuous Process – Management is a complex dynamic and ongoing process it is a series of complex dynamic and ongoing process it is a series of continuing actions that constitute the process of management and it operates so long as there is a organised action for the achievement of group goals.

9. Management is Intangible – Management is an unseen or invisible force but its presence can be felt everywhere in the form of results.

10. Management is the science and the art – It is an art because of knowledge and skill which is used for the solution of managerial problems. It is a science as it contains a systematized body of knowledge, consisting of generally applicable principles. However these principles are not hard and fast rules.

Features of Management – List of 6 Basic Features

Management is not visible by itself. It is just similar to a government that cannot be seen yet its presence is felt through good governance. Likewise an effective and efficient management’s presence is felt through the managed body. A characteristic of good management is that it gets work done through the concerted and coordinated efforts of the entire organisation.

The basic features of management are listed below:

1. Goal-Oriented, Focuses on Stated Objectives:

The basic task of management lies in the attainment of certain objectives that are set by the higher management. The success or failure of the management is judged by the level of achievement of stated goals and objectives of the organisation. The management has to apply its collective experience and skills to stay focused on the organisational goals and objectives.

2. Human-Focused Activity:

All management activities focus on human beings. Management has to work with people. It is the people who will help and contribute towards achievement of the organisational goals and objectives. Their skills and abilities have to be harnessed for the benefit of the organisation. Work and responsibilities have to be delegated to get results. The management has to motivate its employees to impel them to greater efforts and output. Employees have to be transformed into a close-knit, pro-active and cohesive group that is capable of reacting fast to a dynamic environment.

3. Unrelated to Proprietorship:

Modern trends and requirements in business require that the management is apart from proprietorship. The owners must not inter­fere in the day-to-day running of the business as there may be a clash of interest leading to under-achievement of desired objectives. Requirements of today’s dynamics demand greater professionalism and dedication on part of management personnel which makes it all the more imperative that management be divorced from proprietorship.

4. Continuous Process:

Management is an integrated and continuous process that has to take inputs from different departments of the organisation. The successful imple­mentation of organisational plans depends on the management. The management does not function in isolation. It receives informational inputs, both written and oral on an ongoing basis. In turn it has to establish and maintain open channels of communication. These are its eyes and ears. On the basis of received inputs depends its decision making functions.

Judgement by one manager becomes the basis of decision by other members of the management. Management involves getting work done by the people. Therefore, the management has to constantly interact with the workforce. The managers have to be in contact with one another, both up and down the management hierarchy. Problems need to be resolved as and when they arise. All these functions are not a one-off function, but they are part of a never ending cycle. That is why management is called a continuous process.

5. Involves Decision-Making:

One of the most important characteristic of mana­gement is that it involves decision-making. Managers have to make choices in order to optimise the use of resources while keeping the end result in mind. This requires an element of evaluation on part of the management. The level and accuracy of decision-­making based on available data and evidence can make or break a business organisation. The quality of decision-making has a direct bearing on the profitability of the business unit.

6. Strongly Integrates Organisational Resources:

The basic characteristic of management is that it is required to make the best use of the available workforce, raw material, plant, machinery and finance. These are the basic resources of a business organisation, and a correct mix of these and some other inputs is needed to propel the organisation in the right direction. Strong integration is required, both on the horizontal as well as vertical plane in order to convert the organisation into a viable, well-oiled machine capable of meeting organisational long-term and short-term objectives.

Features of Management – 12 Major Features

The peculiarity and comprehensiveness of management are clearly evident by the definitions of the term given by various experts, thinkers and authors. The characteristics of management are also termed as the features of management.

We here present the major features of management:

1. Management is goal-oriented – George R. Terry has stated, “The essence of management is to achieve a stated goal. If there is no purpose or end result sought, there is no justification for management.” In fact, management is a purposeful activity and hence it revolves around goals or objectives. Under management, human activities are coordinated and directed for achieving pre- decided objectives.

2. Management is an activity – Management is an activity, not people. It is a purposeful activity. It is a distinct activity. It includes planning, organising, executing and controlling activities. It can be studied. Its skill can be acquired. Its knowledge can be gained. It is a means, not an end. It is a human activity.

3. Management is a coordination of group efforts – Management is basically concerned with group efforts. It coordinates the activities of the groups for achieving pre-determined objectives. While Lawrence Appley terms management ‘as efforts of other people’, Harold Koontz calls it ‘formally organised groups.’ Massie refers to ‘cooperative group.’

4. Management is a process – Management is a process, consisting of different recurring components. It starts with planning and comes to an end with control and re-starts with planning. Those who are involved in this process are called managers or executives. Sir Charles Renold has stated, “Management is the process of getting things done through the agency of a community.”

5. Management is a social process – Management is largely a social process. It is concerned with the inter-relationships of people at work. According to Dalton E. McFarland, “Management integrates the efforts of individuals and groups; it operates as a process whereby the organisation comes to function as a whole. Management devoid of this social nature is inconceivable, for ultimately all management takes place through people.”

6. Management is intangible – One of the important features of management is its intangibility. According to George R. Terry, “It has been called the unseen force-its presence evidenced by the results of its efforts-orderliness, enthusiastic employees, buoyant spirit, and adequate work output.” Its role and value are noticed when there is mismanagement.

7. Management is an economic resource – Management is an important economic resource. It is a factor of production. The level of development is not only measured on the basis of land, labour and capital but also on the basis of managerial resource and its talent. It is an important living resource capable of enlargement.

8. Management is a universal process – It is a universal process. It is required in all organised living. Managerial functions are not only performed in business enterprises, but also performed in social, political and religious institutions. Its functions are equally performed in families, clubs, and homes and in one’s personal affairs.

9. Management is a dynamic, creative function – Management is a dynamic business function. It is creative. It makes other functions active. Peter F. Drucker has stated, “The manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without his leadership the ‘resources of production’ remain resources and never become production.”

10. Management makes things happen – Terry is of the opinion that management makes things happen. According to Terry, “Managers focus their attention and efforts on bringing about successful action. They know where to start, what to do to keep things moving, and how to follow through. Successful managers have an urge for accomplishment.”

11. Management is an art as well as a science – Management possesses the qualities of art and science both. According to George R. Terry, “…management art includes being able to envision the totality of many disparate parts and to create a representation of that vision, thus imposing order from chaos.” Management is science because it has principles, theories and laws which are applicable everywhere with variations. However, management science is not as exact as physical sciences. In fact, it is an inexact science.

12. Management is a discipline – Now-a-days, management has acquired the status of a discipline. It is considered as a body of knowledge. The subject is taught in the universities, institutes and colleges like other disciplines.

Apart from the above features, there are other features of management too. For example, management is considered as a distinct entity. Management is aided, not replaced by any means. There is no substitute of management. It, according to Terry, is accomplished by, with, and through the efforts of others. It exerts significant impact on the life of human beings.

Features of Management

The various features of management are:

(a) Management is Goal Directed:

Every organisation is created to achieve certain goals. For example, for a business firm it may be to make maximum profit and/or to provide quality products and services. Management of an organisation is always aimed at achievement of the organisational goals. Success of management is determined by the extent to which these goals are achieved.

(b) Management is an Integrating Process:

All the functions, activities, processes and operations are intermixed among themselves. It is the task of management to bring them together and proceed in a coordinated manner to achieve desired result. In fact, without integration of men, machine and material and coordination of individual efforts to contribute successfully as a team, it will be difficult to achieve organisational goals.

(c) Management is Intangible:

Management is not a place like a graphic showing Board meeting or a graphic showing a school Principal at her office desk which can be seen. It is an unseen force and you can feel its presence in the form of rules, regulation, output, work climate, etc.

(d) Management is Multi-Disciplinary:

Management of an organisation requires wide knowledge about various disciplines as it covers handling of man, machine, and material and looking after production, distribution, accounting and many other functions. Thus, we find the principles and techniques of management are mostly drawn from almost all fields of study like – Engineering, Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Anthropology, Mathematics, Statistics etc.

(e) Management is Situational:

The success of management depends on, and varies from, situation to situation. There is no best way of managing. The techniques and principles of management are relative, and do not hold good for all situations to come.

Features of Management – Continuous Process, Goal-Oriented, Pervasive, Group Activity, Multi-Dimensional, Dynamic, Intangible and a Few Others

The features of management are as follows:

(i) Continuous process – Management is a never-ending process. It is concerned with constantly identifying the problems and solving them by taking adequate steps. It is an ongoing process.

(ii) Goal-oriented – The success or failure of the management depends on how far it is able to attain the desired objectives. The functions and activities of a manager lead to the achievement of organisational objectives.

(iii) Pervasive – Management is required everywhere. It is not restricted to business firms only, it is applicable to profit-making or non-profit-making, business or non-business organisations. Management is universal.

(iv) Group Activity – Each individual performs his/her role in the projects and departments of an organisation. Then only management function is executed. Management function cannot be performed in isolation because management is a group activity.

(v) Multi-dimensional – Management incorporates three aspects –

a. Management of Work – All organisations are set up to perform various tasks and goals. Management ensures that the work is accomplished effectively and efficiently.

b. Management of People – Management has to get the goals accomplished through people only. Management of people is necessary for efficient working of an organisation.

c. Management of Operations – Operations are the steps that are performed in the production cycle like purchase of raw material, work in progress and completion of finished goods. Management of operations means linking people and work together for the attainment of organisational goals.

(vi) Dynamic – Business environment keeps on changing and accordingly management has to make changes in goal, objectives and other activities for the attainment of organisational goals. External environment influences the decisions of managers and the management style.

(vii) Decision-making – Management process involves decision-making at all levels. Every situation has alternative courses of action. Choosing the best alternative depends on how effective the management is.

(viii) Intangible – Management function cannot be physically seen but its presence can be felt. The presence of management can be felt by seeing the coordination in the working environment and across all management functions.

(ix) Composite Process – The main functions of management are planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are not independent. All the functions of management are inter-dependent on each other that is why management is considered as a composite process of all these functions.

(x) Management signifies authority – Authority is the power, to make others work. Management cannot discharge its function without authority Essence of management is to direct and control, so it is important that management has an element of authority.

(xi) Leadership – Management must be capable of inspiring, motivating and winning the confidence of the team members. A well-motivated employee performs and helps in accomplishing the goals.

(xii) Management is Science and Art – Science teaches us to know while art teaches us to do. Management is definitely an art because it involves the personalised skills of managers but the body of knowledge, methods, principles, etc., underlying the management practice is science.

(xiii) Management is multi-disciplinary – Management involves managing men, money, methods and processes, etc. All such aspects involve complex interrelationship in a real dynamic economic environment. Thus, study of management discipline involves study of other related subjects such as – economics, sociology, psychology etc., in an integrated manner to arrive at solutions.

Features of Management – 8 Main Features

The main features of management are as follows:

1. Management is goal oriented – Management is an important part of any goal oriented activity. The activities of management are directed towards the achievement of pre- determined goals. The success of the management is assumed by its achievement of these objectives.

2. Management is a continuous process – Management is an ongoing process. It continues as long as there are individuals and group activities directed towards the accomplishment of goals. Managers need to perform the series of the functions continuously in an organisation.

3. Management is all pervasive – Management is required in all kinds of organisations. Whether that be profit or non-profit, business or non- business organisations. The activities of business, clubs, hospitals or school; all need to be managed properly.

4. Management is a dynamic function – Management has to make changes according to the changes taking place in the environment. These changes have to be implemented for any organisation to survive in the long run.

5. Management is intangible – Management cannot be physically seen, but its presence can be felt everywhere by the results in the form of co-ordination, adequate output, employee satisfaction, etc.

6. Management is an integrated activity – The job of management is to bring together and co-ordinate the physical and financial resources for the achievement of organisational goals.

7. Management functions are inter-dependent – Management consists of certain functions like planning, organising, directing and controlling; which are inter­related and inter-dependent.

8. Management is an art as well as science – Management is an art as it requires certain skills, creativity and practice to apply the knowledge. It is basically the application of theoretical principles of science to get desired results. Management is considered a science as it has an organised body of knowledge based on logical findings and facts. The principles of management have evolved over a period of time based on repeated observations and experiments. However, it is not as exact as the principles of science as their application is not universal.

Features of Management – 17 Features

The following features or char­acteristics of management are:

1. Art as well as Science – Management is both an art and a science. It is an art in the sense of possessing of managing skill by a person. In another sense, management is the science because of developing certain principles or laws which are applicable in a place where a group of activities are co-ordinated.

2. Management is an Activity – Management is the process of activity relating to the effective utilisation of available resources for production. The term ‘resources’ includes men, money, materials and machine in the organisation.

3. Management is a Continuous Process – The process of management mainly consists of planning, organising, directing and controlling the resources. The resources (men and money) of an organisation should be used to the best advantages of the organisation and the objectives to be achieved. The management function of any one alone cannot produce any results in the absence of any other basic functions of Management. So, management is a continuous process.

4. Management achieving Pre-determined Objectives – The objectives of an organisation are clearly laid down. Every managerial activity results in the achievement of objectives fixed well in advance.

5. Organised Activities – Management is a group of organised activities. A group is formed not only in a public limited company but also in an ordinary club. All the organisations have their own objectives. These objectives will be achieved only by a group of persons. These persons’ activities should be organised in a systematic way to achieve the objectives. The objectives cannot be achieved without any organised activities.

6. Management as a System of Activity – A system may be defined as a set of component parts working as a whole. Authority may be defined as a right to command others for getting a particular course of organisational work done.

Individuals are the foundation stones of the management. An individual has some goals as a member of the organisation. There may be a conflict between his own goals and the management’s expectations from that individual. Such conflict is resolved by the management by ensuring balance between individual goals and organisational expectations.

7. Management is a Discipline – The boundaries of management are not exact as those of any other physical sciences. It may be increased by the continuous discovery of many more aspects of business enterprise. So, the management status as a discipline is also increased in the same manner.

8. Management is a Purposeful Activity – Management is concerned with achievement of objectives of an organisation. These objectives are achieved through the functions of planning, organising, staffing, directing, controlling arid decision-making. The organisational objectives are clearly defined and explained to every employee.

9. Management is a Distinct Entity – Management is distinct from its functional activities. The functions have the nature of “to do” but the management has the nature of “how to get things done”. A manager requires some amount of skill and knowledge to get work done.

10. Management Aims at Maximising Profit – The available resources are properly utilised to get desired results. The results should be the maximising profit or increasing profit by the economic function of a manager.

11. Decision-making – There are a number of decisions taken by the management every day. Decision making arises only when there is availability of alternative courses of action. If there is only one course of action, need for decision-making does not arise. The quality of decision taken by the manager determines the organisations’ performance. The success or failure of an organisation depends upon the degree of right decision taken by the manager.

12. Management is a Profession – Management is a profession because it possesses the qualities of a profession. A fund of knowledge is imparted and transferred in this profession and the same is followed by management. The established principles of management are applied in practice.

13. Management is getting thing done – A manager does not actually perform the work but he gets things done by others. According to Knootz and O’Donnel, “management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups.”

14. Management as a Career – Now-a-days, management is developed as a career focused on certain specialisation. Financial Management, Cash Management, Portfolio Management, Marketing Management, Personnel Management, Industrial Management and Business Management are some of the specialisations of management. Specialists are appointed in the key posts of top management.

15. Direction and Control – A manager can direct his sub-ordinates in the performance of a work and control them whenever necessary. If the available resources are not utilised properly by him, he fails to achieve the corporate objectives in the absence of direction and control. Generally, the direction and control, deals with the activities of human effort.

16. Dynamic – The management is not static. In the fast developing business world, new techniques are developed and adopted by the management. Management is changed according to the social change. The social change is the result of the changing business world.

17. Leadership Quality – Leadership quality is developed in the persons who are working in the top level management. According to R.C. Davis, “Management is the function of executive leadership everywhere.”

Features of Management – Basic Features

The following are the features of management:

i. Management is a distinct profession.

ii. Management is a continuous process.

iii. Management is an activity for getting thing done through other.

iv. It is required at all time and at all levels.

v. Management is a goal-oriented activity.

vi. It is required for every type and size of organisation.

vii. Management is intangible in nature.

viii. Management is a dynamic and future oriented process.

ix. Management is a decision making body.

x. Management process and principles are universal in nature.

xi. Management is a social process dealing with manpower.

xii. Management is an art and a science too.

xiii. It is the art of knowing what you want to do and to do it in the best and the economical way.

xiv. Management is the art of deviating and inspiring people.

xv. Management is the function of leadership anywhere.

xvi. Management is the co-ordination of human resource and other factors of production.