Advertising media is a vehicle or device that carries the message of the advertiser to the target consumer. There are various media that are available for an advertiser to choose from, to carry his particular advertising message.
Availability of advertising media is very important to consider while planning to advertise in an overseas market. It is pertinent to mention that media may not be available readily in every country or in some areas within a particular country. The following types of advertising media can be used in the overseas market for the promotion of products or services.
The types of advertising media can be broadly categorised as:- 1. Indoor Advertising Media 2. Outdoor Advertising Media 3. Direct Advertising Media 4. Displays Advertising Media.
Some of the types of advertising media are:- 1. Press Media 2. Radio Media 3. Television Media 4. Film Media 5. Internet Media 6. Posters 7. Painted Displays 8. Travelling Displays 9. Electric Signs 10. Sky-Writing 11. Sandwich Men 12. Post Cards 13. Envelop Enclosures 14. Broad-Sides 15. Booklets and Catalogues 16. Sales Letters 17. Gift-Novelties 18. Store Publications 19. Package Inserts 20. Displays 21. Showrooms 22. Exhibitions 23. Print Media 24. Direct Mail 25. Audio, Visual and Audio-Visual Media 26. Advertisement through Broadcasting 27. Board Advertisement 28. Fairs and Exhibitions 29. Mail Advertisement.
Additionally, learn about the merits and demerits of each type of advertising media.
Advertising Media Types: Indoor , Outdoor, Direct and Display Advertising Media
Advertising Media Types – Print Media, Direct Mail, Audio, Visual and Audio-Visual Media
Media, as the very meaning implies, is nothing but a medium or a channel for carrying the intended advertising message to an intended audience. It is essential to understand the distinction between the two commonly used terms—media, and media vehicle. Newspaper is a media.
Under this media, there are so many media vehicles. Times of India, is a media vehicle; The Hindu is another media vehicle within the newspaper media. Magazines from another distinct media. And within this media, The Illustrated Weekly is a media vehicle, and the Readers Digest is another.
Radio is a media, and within this media, Vividh Bharathi is a media vehicle, Farm and Home, is another media vehicle. In other words, there are certain major media, and within each major media, there are several media vehicles.
Selecting the appropriate media and the media vehicle and arriving at should media mix is a very crucial function in advertising. These days advertising agencies provide help in media selection as an integral part of their service to the advertiser.
The media are classified into two categories:
1. Above-the-Line Media – Press, TV, outdoor, posters, cinema and radio. The recognised agencies get ‘commission’ from these media;
2. Below-the-Media – These do not give commission to the ad agency. The agency adds a percentage as a handling or profit charge or charge a service fee. The examples are: Direct mail, POS, SP, merchandising, exhibitions and sales literature.
The following are the various categories of media available to a media buyer or an advertiser.
Media that are Commonly Used in Advertising:
The major media commonly used for advertising requirements are:
(1) Print Media –
(iii) Trade journals.
(2) Direct Mail Media.
(3) Audio, Visual and Audio-visual Media –
(iv) Outdoor advertising. Outdoor, the oldest media
Of all the above media, ‘out-door advertising’ is the oldest form of publicity known to man, other than of course, word-of-mouth communication. As early as 3200 B.C., Egyptians resorted to stenciling inscriptions of their kings on temples. It was nothing but out-door advertising.
Historians have also written about the practice of Egyptian merchants who used to cut tablets of ‘sales messages’ and place them along the roads. In India, in the third century B.C., Emperor Ashoka used outdoor advertising for communicating government policies to the people and latter for propagating Buddhism. His ‘rock edicts’ and ‘pillar edicts’ are pieces of outdoor advertising.
Even in the modern days, in spite of the entry of several other media, outdoor advertising continues to be heavily used by advertisers. This is because – (a) vast masses of people are exposed to outdoor messages during their daily movements, (b) a major part of the earth’s surface is ‘outdoor’ rather than ‘indoor’ and (c) people spend more time outdoors than indoors. The print media, the audio and audio-visual media were later added to the outdoor media.
Among the print media, the newspapers have become the most popular. They offer a high readership. Today, reading newspaper is a habitual activity for the educated people all over the world. Messages appearing in the newspapers are normally talked about the discussed.
Magazines, trade journals and technical publications are also a part of the print media. They cater to selected audience. Unlike newspapers, magazines and trade journals are preserved and re-read. So, magazines and trade journals have a longer life and the messages in them get repeated exposures.
Excellent visual presentations are possible in magazines whereas newspaper advertisements are of relatively lower quality, mainly because of the type of paper and the printing process used. Recent technological developments have however rendered sophisticated printing facilities possible for newspapers as well, making them a more attractive media.
Direct mail is another favourite media with advertisers. Direct mail simply means printed messages posted directly to a number of selected members of the target market. Through this method, the advertiser tries to establish a direct communication process with the target group. As a media, it has the added advantage that the effect of the advertising effort can be directly evaluated against the sales that would be generated.
Radio is another major media. It provides wide coverage. But it lacks a visual impact. The message is only heard in a fleeting manner. TV and the cinema have an added advantage over radio, because the messages are ‘seen and heard’ and they appear ‘live’ to the audience.
Advertising Media Types – Indoor Advertising Media, Outdoor Advertising Media, Direct Advertising Media and Display Advertising Media (With Advantages and Disadvantages)
The term media is plural for medium. In advertising terms medium is a channel of communication such as newspapers, magazines radio and television. A medium is a vehicle for carrying the sales message of an advertiser to the prospects. It is a vehicle by which advertisers convey their messages to a large group of prospects and thereby aid in closing the gap between the producer at one end and the consumer on the other.
Advertising media may be defined as “the physical means whereby a manufacturer of goods or utilities or a supplier of services tells the consumer about his product or service”.
In the words of Brennan, “The term media embraces each and every method that the advertiser has at his command to carry his message to the public”.
Thus, advertising media is a vehicle or device that carries the message of the advertiser to the target consumer. There are various media that are available for an advertiser to choose from, to carry his particular advertising message.
Classification and Characteristics of Different Media:
Advertising media can be classified into the following four groups:
(1) Indoor Advertising Media:
a. Press media
b. Radio media
c. Television media
d. Film media.
e. Internet Media
b. Painted displays
c. Travelling displays
d. Electric signs
f. Sandwich men.
a. Post cards
b. Envelop enclosures
d. Booklets and catalogues
e. Sales letters
g. Store publications
h. Package inserts.
Let us now study the characteristics and advantages and disadvantages of each advertising media:
Indoor advertising, means using those media that reach the audience right inside their houses or indoors. These vehicles are newspaper, radio, television and film. Through these media the message reaches the audience indoors where it is cosy and the audience is in a comfortable and receptive mood. The audience is relaxed.
Let us here study each of the indoor media:
Press or print media basically includes newspapers and magazines.
Let us first consider newspaper media:
It is very hard to imagine a morning without a newspaper. Millions of people all over the world begin their mornings with a cup of tea and the newspaper. The newspaper is not just the carrier of news but also ideas, opinions, complaints and thoughts of the people. It enlightens as well as entertains. Of all the media it is considered as the back-bone of the advertising programme. This is because it has continued to remain the most powerful message carrier.
Merits of Newspaper Media:
(a) Local coverage – Since newspapers are local, the advertisers can easily use them to reach a particular local market. Most newspapers contain maximum number of local advertisements. This is one of the major advantages as newspapers provide advertising in a geographically segmented market.
(b) Lengthy and complex messages – As newspapers can be scanned at the leisure of the reader, lengthy and complex messages can be released through this media.
(c) It is comparatively cheap – As compared to other media of advertising like television, Newspaper is a cheaper media.
(d) Ease of release – It is very easy to release an advertisement in the newspaper. A previously prepared advertisement can be released at the last minute to take advantage of some special marketing situation.
(e) Wide reach – Newspapers have a wide reach: Newspapers are read by virtually everybody. It reaches even the remotest corners of the country.
(f) Trial Advertisements – This media is good to conduct a trial advertisement run. This trial advertisement can be conducted on a small scale and on a regional basis at a relatively low cost.
(a) Short life span – The biggest demerit of newspaper advertising is its short life span. Today’s newspaper is tomorrow’s wastepaper.
(b) Chances of being unnoticed – Newspapers are read basically to catch up on news and views. They are read in a hurry and the advertisements get skipped. Thus, an advertisement may go unnoticed if it is not strategically located.
(c) Different rates – Newspapers charge different rates for advertisements placed in different positions. The preferred positions often carry a higher rate. A majority of the newspaper advertisements are placed on an ROP basis, which means that the paper has the right to place the advertisements anywhere at its discretion. ROP means run of paper. Thus, the advertisement may get placed in a position which is not very eye catching.
(d) Poor quality – Newspapers are printed on coarse wood pulp paper known as newsprint. The quality of newspaper advertising is thus poor, as compared to magazine advertising.
Magazines are periodicals that are published weekly, fort-nightly, monthly, quarterly and annually. Magazines are both specific interest magazines as well as general interest magazines. Further you also have both regional as well as national magazines.
(a) Longer life – Magazines have a longer life as compared to newspapers. Further magazines are read at leisure and hence the advertisements have more chance of being noticed.
(b) Visual display – Magazines use good quality paper with a glossy finish. Further magazines advertisements have the advantage of colour and this makes them more visually appealing.
(c) Selectivity – As magazines usually have selective readership, a high degree of selectivity is provided to the advertiser through the use of this media. Advertisers can reach any market segment in terms of differing demographic variables like age, income, occupation, profession, sex and so on. It should also be noted that, magazines have a high degree of believability, acceptance and authority in their respective fields.
(d) Geographical Flexibility – Magazines have regional editions through which the advertiser can reach an audience in a particular geographical area. Thus, the advertisement message can be tailor-made to suit the culture, language and outlook of a particular kind of people.
(a) Inflexibility – Advertisements to be released in magazines, have to be submitted well in advance. In the case of some weekly magazines the space has to be bought and the advertisement copy submitted at least 8-10 weeks in advance, particularly in the case of colour advertisements. Once this date is over no changes in the advertisement copy is allowed and nor can the space bought be cancelled.
(b) Waste in circulation – Though magazines have regional editions, most of them have a national circulation. Thus, an advertisement that is released in a national magazine lacks geographical selectivity.
(c) Costlier – Advertisements in magazines are more costly than newspaper advertisements. This is because of the use of better quality paper, use of colours and mechanical preparations for advertisements.
(d) Restricted frequency – As magazines are usually published weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly or annually the advertiser cannot communicate his message to the audience with any high degree of frequency. Magazines are “occasional ambassadors” that eat away frequency and immediacy.
Radio advertising can aptly be called as “word of mouth” advertising. It is a medium of mass communication that appeals to the ears through sound. It is a media that is virtually dead or dying in the urban areas. However, about 37% of the rural population still gets their information from the radio. Thus, it is an important media if the advertiser wants to reach the rural masses.
(a) Selectivity – Radio is a selective vehicle of mass media in the sense that the advertiser can advertise in only those markets that he desires. He can select programmes, Stations, time of the day and the type of listenership.
(b) Instant medium that is flexible – Radio is an instant medium. In the sense it does not require the paraphernalia of the camera and other things that is required for preparing television advertisements. In fact last minute alterations too can be easily done.
(c) Human Touch – The human voice is the most natural way in which people communicate. Radio communicates through the human voice and thus it is a personal medium that gives a human touch.
(d) Mass Coverage – Radio reaches almost all human beings except those that cannot hear. Further it is a mobile medium. It can easily be carried along and hence, can be heard anywhere and at any time, easily and comfortably.
(e) Economy – Radio advertising is cheaper as compared to other media like television or even prime hoardings.
(a) Lack of illustration – Radio is one medium in which it is virtually impossible to show or even illustrate the product. The only way in which the product can be shown through this medium is through an oral description.
(b) Message perishability – Usually a person who listens to the radio does not do so with complete attention. In fact, work or play is usually undertaken and the radio makes up the background sound. In such a situation, the advertisement message may go unheard and perish away without any effective listening.
(c) Limited time – The time available for advertising is limited to a specific number of hours only. Once this time is sold, no more advertisements can be accommodated. This is not the case with the print media where extra pages can be added.
In India the television was first commissioned in 1959 and commercial telecasting started only in 1976. It is an audio visual medium that provides a perfect synchronization of sound, light, motion, colour and immediacy.
Advantages of Television Advertising:
(a) It has a deep impact – No other medium can compete with the television as far as effective presentation is concerned. It attracts attention immediately. Computer graphics have made it more effective than ever before. Through this medium the product is shown exactly as it is. It can be demonstrated. In fact it virtually replaces personal selling.
(b) Mass communication media – Like the radio, television too is a media of mass communication. Nearly the entire urban area and a great portion of rural India too enjoy television coverage. Every slum area in urban town boasts of a television. The poorest of the poor aspire for it. Thus, it reaches a maximum number of people every day in their houses.
(c) Upper hand in distribution – A television advertisement for a product or service is greatly appreciated by the merchants in the channel of distribution. They attach a certain amount of prestige towards handling products that are advertised on television. Thus, this medium helps the marketer in procuring the best distributors for distributing his products.
(d) Life like presentation – The most striking feature of television medium is its instantaneous transmission of sight, motion, sound and colour that is life like. Of all the media, television is the closest replicate of life. It presents the things and the events as they are and happen. Thus, it is the most believable medium. People tend to believe what they see.
(e) Evocation of experience – It stimulates the experience of using and owning the product, thus creating a desire for it.
(f) Image building – Television succeeds in building a powerful image of the company and its products. It can also project an image of the users rendering it excellent for life-style advertising.
Disadvantages of Television Advertising:
(a) It is time consuming – It takes time to produce television commercials. This medium requires planning and deliberation. If it is not properly produced the television commercial may look crude. But once produced as per requirement they can be repeated over a long period of time.
(b) Short life – The television commercial has a short life. Once it is viewed and heard it is gone. It does not remain as a part of the household like the newspaper or magazine or the calendar. If the prospect misses the commercial at its exact time of presentation, the scene and message is lost and wasted as far as the prospect is concerned. It requires a repeated relay of advertisements to have an appreciable impact on the audience.
(c) A costly medium – Television is a costly medium. Not only is it costly to make a television advertisement, but the purchase of time on the television is also very expensive. This is one of the main factors that take television out of reach of the small advertiser. He cannot even think of purchasing a slot on television.
(d) The clutter problem – Television media suffers from the clutter problem. That is over crowding of too many commercials in a very short span of time. Both the advertisers and the viewer’s complain about this. The clutter reduces the effectiveness of the advertisements.
(e) An immobile medium – The television is an immobile medium. Radio can be listened to either in the car or while walking; on a picnic etc. Similarly, newspapers and magazines are read everywhere. However, television is to be viewed only at home.
Film advertising is yet another medium of publicity characterized by sound, motion, colour, vision and timeliness. It is like a television run on the enlarged screen for a larger audience. This audio-visual medium has a wide range starting from an ordinary slide presentation to the advertising films screening. Screen advertisements are liked by people of all ages, sexes, professions, political affiliations, cultural heritage and income groups because of its magic of life size presentation of themes.
Advantages of Film Advertising:
(a) Film advertising ensures a captive audience – People visit a cinema hall to see a movie of their choice. This choice ensures a higher degree of concentration as compared to viewing a television programme. Television cannot command as complete an attention, as commanded by the film media.
(b) Film media is ideal for niche marketing – Through this media the advertiser can be segment specific, market specific, right down to a particular district, city or even a theatre.
(c) Advertising on cinema is economical – The cost of screening an advertisement in a theatre is quite economical. However, the cost of making the advertising film is not so.
(a) It is costly – The cost of making an advertising film to be screened in cinema houses is expensive. However, the cost of making slides is not so.
(b) Limited Coverage – The coverage of film advertising is only limited to those few who visit the cinema hall in which these advertisements are released.
(c) Resentment from viewers – The viewers go to cinema houses for viewing a feature film and not an advertising film. The viewers view the advertisements to be a barrier in their entertainment and may resent it. This reduces the effectiveness of the advertisement message.
The internet is one of the latest media of advertising. It has a worldwide reach. People all over the world can access the internet. When a person accesses a particular web page, the advertisements released on that particular web page, is also viewed by him. Thus, the more popular a particular web page, the more in demand it is by advertisers. This is the reason why many a services are available for free on the internet. When the services are free, the viewership is more and, this increased accessing of a particular site, attracts advertisers.
Advertisements to be released on the internet are easy to prepare and a lot many courses on web page designing are available today. You also have many web page designers who compete with each other for the client’s businesses. The cost of preparing an internet advertisement is much less as compared to the price paid for the preparation of a television advertisement or for the hire of a prime hoarding. Further, internet advertisements can result in immediate action as a person accessing the internet can make a direct on-line purchase. Thus, the effectiveness of the internet advertisement can be measured.
However, an advertisement on the internet has to compete with various other advertisements for the attention of the viewer. It also has to compete with the contents of the web page for which the viewer had originally accessed the internet. He definitely did not access it to view advertisements.
Thus, the internet advertisement has to be very attractive as the viewer is conscious of the time he is spending on the internet. This is because accessing the internet costs money and this has to be paid in terms of amount of time spent on the internet. Thus, in order to catch the attention of the viewer, advertisements on the internet are basically used as, vehicles that carry sales promotion messages.
Thus, you will find most advertisements on the internet with words like Free, 40% discount, Money Back Offer, in order to lure the viewer towards viewing it, and make immediate buying action. Sometimes, the internet advertisements take a lot of time to download, and hence, miss the attention of the viewer totally.
However, today is the era of the internet and information technology. People over the world are beginning to rely more and more on the internet due to its wide accessibility. In fact, its popularity is such that people are beginning to become internet addicts. Once used to it, you just cannot do without it. In other words, if you have a computer at home, today you can do away with the television as well as the music system. In the households of the future, the internet will be replacing the television and, hence, the importance of internet advertising is projected to occupy very ‘dominant’ place in the future.
i. Website Banner Advertisements:
Web Banner Advertising is a type of Internet Advertising whereby you pay another website ‘X’ amount to display an advertising banner on their website for a certain length of time. The web banner links directly to your website, tempting visitors away from theirs and onto yours. Sometimes, advertising on another website in the form of a banner advertisement can yield a fairly good return. However, advertising on a website that has little or nothing to do with your target audience involves high levels of luck to convert any sales, producing little to no Return on Investment (ROI).
Stylishly done banner ad campaigns will continue to be the staple of internet advertising for the immediate future. Studies show that banners are terribly good at generating traffic through click-through and have a powerful branding effect. Matching site content to banner advertising subject can certainly increase their power. Selecting a banner to display based on the observed personal preferences and interests of a visitor are a hugely powerful sales tool. The potential for targeted banners is huge.
If you ‘sponsor’ a section of a site you can integrate your advertising message and branding elements a bit more unobtrusively than you can with just a banner at the top. You might also be able to have your regular ads and have “these cool pages sponsored by …” appear on the pages you’re sponsoring. Thus, you may get more exposure and closer integration with content.
iii. Rich Media:
Right now, this term seems to mean a more-or-less normal-sized banner ad that uses Java, HTML or any other software to make the advertisement have drop-down boxes, wiggly bits, Sound on mouse-over, small games etc. Both visitors and sites like them because you don’t have to actually leave the site to interact with the banner. Click through on such advertisements can be quite high.
iv. Text Link Exchanges and Paid Link Advertising:
In more recent times, link exchanges have become quite popular. The general idea is two likeminded websites exchange a contextually based link (text link), normally placed on a dedicated resources page which is linked from every page of the site. Webmasters will approach another website of a similar theme to ask if they would exchange a link. The link can provide traffic from one site to the other.
Many of the largest search engines use link popularity in their complex ranking algorithms. The idea being, if a website is of good quality, other webmasters will link to it from their own site. Each web page has one vote, linking to another site is in effect casting that vote, if the page links to more than one site, the vote is diluted between each link. The other key part to conducting link exchanges is using keyword targeted descriptive text as the actual clickable part of the link (anchor text).
Purchasing text links works exactly the same way as above apart from the fact that you purchase the link rather than exchange, you don’t have to provide a link back either. Purchasing links will often lead to a link displayed in a more prominent place. The price of purchasing links depends on a number of criteria, such as, the amount of traffic on the site and it’s Google PageRank (PR) which is an indication of the weight a link would produce.
v. Keyword Advertising:
This can be quite effective. What you do is pay a search engine, directory or site to have your ad or link to your site pop up first when someone does a search on the keywords you buy. When someone does a search using the word ‘Scales’, your matter comes up on top of the list and/or your banner ad is at the top of the page. The best searched words like ‘Sex’ and ‘Air Transport’ is usually sold out or very expensive.
The less-searched on words are cheaper but can also bring a very valuable targeted person to your site. By now, everyone’s heard about the old misspelling trick. If someone else has already bought the keyword ‘hamburger’, you could probably buy slight misspellings like, ‘hmburger’ or ‘hamburgr’ cheap that would still get you good action.
vi. Coupon Deals:
Web Advertisements carrying digital coupons that give you special deals for ecommerce purchases or printable coupons provide the advertiser the opportunity to do all the wonderful and horrible things traditionally possible with coupons, but now you can do it on the Web. Airlines are using these to increase their air traffic.
vii. Pay per Click or Pay per Sale:
Some sites sell space to advertisers. The advertisers have their banners or rich media advertisements on sites on which they have hired space. The advertiser pays the site only when someone clicks upon the banner or gets to the target site and buys something. Such advertisers pay a bit more to the site but the payment depends upon the number of clicks, or number of purchases, as the case may be.
Such deals make people buying ads get a more secure return on their investment, Such deals are fine for the people buying the ads but do not tend to pay off well for the advertising sites, as some people will actually click on the ads and the site will lose them.
viii. Pop Ups and Pop Unders:
Pop Ups and Pop Unders are simply one of the forms of internet available. A Pop-Up displays an advertisement of a website in a new window when you visit another site, a Pop Under inserts the advertisement under the page you are viewing so that when you close the window down, and you are presented with it.
If you use the internet you’re bound to have come across Pop Ups before and probably are already sick to death of them. Most of the times, people see them loading up and they are unable to close the window before they’ve fully loaded. In recent times, Pop Ups have become much less popular, as they are being made redundant by most browsers and downloadable toolbars like, the Google toolbar and Microsoft IE, who are coming up with complete Pop Up blockers. However, these services are cheap and are sold mostly on the premise of people thinking well. It’s only £ 10 for a thousand; I may as well give it a try.
Thus, these are some of the different ways in which a company can use the internet or web pages to advertise its products or services.
Outdoor advertising is the oldest form of advertising. It is also known as ‘position’, ‘Mural’ or ‘indirect’ advertising. Outdoor advertising is literally out of door, i.e. it is out of the home or place of business. The importance of outdoor advertising can be gleaned from the fact that an ordinary human being spends one third of his time out of doors. The viewer has to incur no expenditure, nor has he to make any effort to see an outdoor advertisement.
An outdoor advertising message is not bought to the viewer; it is the viewer who goes to the message, though they view it in the course of their other activities. Outdoor advertising media is made up of vehicles like posters, painted displays, hoardings, electric signs, travelling displays, sky writings and the like.
A detailed explanation of various outdoor media vehicles is as follows:
A poster is a sheet of paper pasted on a wooden card or metal board depicting the advertising message. The poster advertising message should be simple, brief and attractive. Illustrations go a long way in increasing the effectiveness of posters. Mostly posters remain in position for a period of time say, several weeks. We therefore, say that they enjoy 24 hours exposure and a long life. Posters account for nearly 75% of all outdoor media vehicles. The success of a poster advertisement depends upon the designing of the poster as well as the site at which it is put up.
ii. Painted Displays:
Painted displays are painted bulletins and wall paintings. A painted bulletin is nothing but a metal sheet of a rectangular shape of a standard size erected at heights to command visibility from a distance. It is larger and elaborate form of outdoor advertising as compared to the poster. Painted displays are sometimes illuminated for the night traffic. The rentals for these sites are based on a period of one year. The advertiser may thus keep the same message for a period of one year or change it depending upon his requirement.
iii. Electric Signs/Neon Signs:
Electric signs and Neon signs are more popularly known as spectacular signs. These are large permanents signs that make use of elaborate light and action effects. These are a conspicuous vehicle of outdoor media and are designed to attract the public as they pass by. They are usually effective in places that have a high nightlife. Electric signs are usually placed in high places so as to have a maximum rate of visibility. These signs are either authorized by the local administration or are put up on private buildings. Usually these signs are on a yearly contract.
iv. Travelling Displays/Transit Advertising:
Transit advertising stands for all types of advertising signs or displays used in trains, buses, cars, trams, autos and other such transportation vehicles and the terminals or the station from which they operate.
The advertising industry has very creatively used the sky to advertise their goods and services. Sky writing is the kind of publicity where the message is spread across the sky in one form or the other. Usually sky writing takes the form of sky balloons, giant kites, and search lights. This is a novel medium and can catch the attention of the people. However, it has a short life, and is not very commonly used.
vi. Sandwich men:
This is the oldest and funniest medium of outdoor advertising. It is still popular in rural areas. Under this kind of advertising, the advertiser hires men. These men are called as sandwich men because they are sandwiched between the posters both in the front and back. Further they are dressed in colourful and bright clothes, and shout slogans, thus attracting the public not just towards themselves but to the product and the advertiser.
(a) The outdoor offers a long life.
(b) It offers geographic selectivity. Posters can be changed as often as required to keep up with the change in the advertising message to suit a particular segment in the market. This is one medium in which the advertiser has a choice of displaying a different message in every region and every locality.
(c) The advertiser can incorporate the names and addresses of his local dealers or agents at the bottom of the poster or painted display. These dealer imprint strips are called ‘snipes’.
(d) This media offers an attractive display of the product trademark and slogan.
(e) This media attracts the attention of the people when they are out of doors. Thus, it results in influencing them when they are out shopping. Usually these posters and painted displays are strategically placed so as to have this effect.
(a) Since the copy of this media has to be brief, this media merely supplements some other media.
(b) This media is non-selective. In the sense, that the audience who get the exposure are people of all ages, sexes, educational and socio economic levels. There is no selectivity of a particular type of audience.
(c) This media when employed on a national basis is relatively expensive.
(d) It is difficult to measure the effectiveness of this media and getting reliable data on the number of people who actually see these advertisements, and is very difficult to estimate.
There is a lot of confusion between the phrase ‘direct advertising’ and ‘direct mail advertising’. Direct advertising is a very comprehensive phrase covering all forms of printed advertising delivered directly to prospective customer. Instead of using an indirect media like newspaper or television through which the prospect may or may not see the advertisement, through this media the prospect is directly approached. It may take various forms like pamphlets distributed to people on the road stuck under the wind screen of an automobile, handed over at the retail counter or it may be sent through the post.
It is ‘direct mail advertising’ only if it reaches the customer through the post. However, if it reaches the customer in any other way it is ‘direct advertising’. This is one of the oldest ways of reaching a prospect or customer. It is a direct approach to consumers. This direct approach may be through sales letters and circulars, or it may be through leaflets, folders and brochures.
The following are the different forms that a direct advertising can take:
i. Post Cards:
A post card is the most widely used form of direct advertising because of its high attention value and economy. It is designed to get direct and immediate attention of the recipient. It is used to carry brief messages.
ii. Envelop Enclosures:
The phrase ‘envelop enclosure’ is quite likely to mislead. By ‘enclosure’, we normally mean a paper that is enclosed or attached to the main letter. However, here it stands for the bunch of papers itself which is separately posted. It may be a circular or a stuffer or a folder.
A ‘circular’ is a sheet of paper or sheets of papers printed on either one or both sides. Circular gives information about the product in colour or in black and white. They may or may not carry illustrations of the product.
A ‘stuffer’ is an enclosure that is used as a means to deliver sales and goodwill messages. It is a vehicle used to amplify the sales literature by providing illustrations and detailed information of wide range of commodities of a single company or different manufacturers.
A ‘folder’ is bigger than an ordinary card or a letter. It is folded in an impressive and convenient manner. It is very popularly known as adult leaflet or booklet without binding.
iii. Board Sides:
Board-side is a large size advertising folder. Its striking features are its big size and illustrative display. These are also called as ‘spectaculars in print’ because they are excellent attention getters.
iv. Booklets and Catalogues:
Booklets are very small books consisting of not more than 8-10 pages fastened or stapled together to allow it to open as a book. A booklet is usually mailed in an envelope. It contains useful information answering the questions of prospective buyers about product features. However, it gives information about a limited number of products.
Catalogues are quite similar to the book-let in physical make up. However, they are much larger and present information on a wide range of products of the business house. They also feature the prices of the products and give other conditions of purchase. They can be used as reference material too.
v. Sales Letters:
A sales letter is a silent ambassador of the firm. It first sells the name of the company and then its products. The success of a sales letter depends upon its appeal. The stationery used, the tone of the letter, the theme of the letter, all have their impact.
Gift advertising or specialty advertising is the medium that employs useful articles known as advertising specialties or gift novelties that are imprinted with the name and address and the sales message of the advertiser. These act as goodwill gifts or reminders. The advertiser hopes that the recipient is likely to be influenced favourably to buy in the future, if he is reminded of the company every time he looks at the gift. There are countless such items that can be presented like ball point pens, ash-trays, cigarette lighters, paper weights, calendars, drink stirrers etc.
vii. Store Publications:
A store publication is a house organ or bulletin or magazine published by the company mainly for the purpose of promoting goodwill and moulding the public opinion, though it has a sales tinge. These house organs are freely distributed to the dealers, customers, and employees. Though they are costly and have a high mortality rate, a well edited house organ can do a lot in getting customers, and dealers acquainted with the company’s image, philosophy and progress.
viii. Package Inserts:
The phrase ‘package inserts’ is used in a broad sense to include packages, labels, and inserts. Though the package is a container that protects the contents and facilitates easy handling, it is a very effective means of carrying the message about the product. It acts as a medium of advertising. For better results, the advertising message on the package must be short, illustrative and giving product information and uses. ‘Label’ is a printed piece of paper giving the value of the product and its content, name of the product and producers and other such useful information.
It is stuck or imprinted on the package. ‘Package inserts’ are printed matter that is inserted into the packages. They go only to those who purchase the particular product. They provide a golden opportunity to the advertiser to pass on his message to the customers. Inserts give information regarding how best to use the product, as well as how to store and maintain it. This is also the most economical method of direct advertising.
Advantages of Direct Advertising Media:
(a) High Selectivity – Through the use of this media, the advertiser can select exactly which particular target audience he wishes to reach out to.
(b) Personal Touch – This media allows for a personal touch, especially sales letters. They can be directly addressed to the particular person.
(c) Deep Impact – The recipient receives these mailers at home, in a comfortable atmosphere. Further if they are addressed to him personally, they will have a deeper impact.
(d) Measurement of effectiveness – This is the only media in which some kind of definite measurement of the effectiveness of the message can be done. Depending upon the response received, the effectiveness of the advertising message can be measured.
(a) Higher cost – The cost per recipient works out to be much more than other mass media like newspapers, magazines, radio and television.
(b) Low reader interest – Much of the material sent through direct advertising finds itself in the dustbin.
(c) Warrants special skill – To be effective this media needs to be prepared very creatively. It has to attract the attention of the reader and hence requires special talents.
Display advertising media, in a broader sense is also known as P.O.P. i.e. point of purchase advertising. It is more a promotional medium than advertising. In recent times this medium is gaining more importance because of new trends in buying such as ‘self-service’. The significance of display advertising lies in its ability to allow the prospects to experience the products before buying. It is also an effective dealer aid. It attracts customers to the shop and leads to impulse buying.
Display advertising is hinged on the concept of display. It has three dimensions namely displays, showrooms and showcases, and exhibitions.
Let us take a brief look at all these:
Displays are of several types. There are window displays, counter displays, wall displays, shelf displays, overhead displays, floor displays, and jumble displays. Here, let us study the prominent ones namely window display and counter display.
The “display” of products in shop-windows so that passersby are attracted to enter the shop and buy the products, or at least be reminded of the products, is termed as “window display”. Window display is an effective strategy for gaining the interests and attention of the passersby or ‘window shoppers’. Attractive and innovative window displays attract and urge window shoppers to step into the shop. Today, the concept of window display has caught on so well in India that a new breed of designers specialising in the art of window display has emerged.
Counter display or interior display refers to all the arrangements that are made inside the shop. It refers to all kinds of internal showmanship in the garb of storage. It can be open, closed, and top of the counter, wall, architectural, ledge type and the like. It speaks of scientific and artistic arrangement of glass cupboards, fixtures, shelves, racks, show cases, stands and other supports.
Even today there are some customers who do not believe in purchase without inspection. In the case of industrial goods and consumer goods purchase after inspection is inevitable. Sometimes, demonstrations are also required prior to purchase. Showrooms basically accommodate the needs of such consumers.
A showroom is a specially designed room used mainly for display, demonstration and after sale services. Two types of personnel namely technical and sales staff. A show room becomes the hub of activity of explaining the product features, merits, demonstrating and after sale services, particularly repairs and maintenance.
iii. Trade Shows, Exhibitions and Fairs:
Trade shows and exhibitions offer an excellent opportunity to manufacturers to display their products and to demonstrate their use and value. Manufacturers can buy display spaces or counters at reasonable rates- perhaps more reasonable than the exorbitant media rates for advertising. Many a times, trade associations too hold annual exhibitions and fairs. Now-a-days electronic fair, technology fairs, consumer products exhibitions have become quite common.
Thus, the above are the various media that are available for an advertiser to choose from in order to advertise his products. He may choose any combination of the various media mentioned above.
Advertising Media Types– Television, Radio, Magazines, Direct Mail, Outdoor Advertising, Periodicals, Cinema and Newspapers
An overseas product advertising is the practice of advertising in the overseas media. It is carried out, while the advertising campaign is planned. It can be planned directly, indirectly or by an advertiser from other country.
Availability of advertising media is very important to consider while planning to advertise in an overseas market. It is pertinent to mention that media may not be available readily in every country or in some areas within a particular country. The following types of advertising media can be used in the overseas market for the promotion of products or services.
Type # 1. Television:
Television is most popular media used by the multinational companies for the promotion of their products or services. In some of the developing nations, where television is not available on nationwide basis, the viewing habit of the people is noted more. The viewing habit of the people cannot be underestimated in those countries. For example a set of television in a village can attract large number of viewers. It can also result into a great deal of interaction among peoples in terms of conversation about the advertised product.
(i) Management and control of T.V. Station in the hand of government – Somewhere the T.V. Stations are controlled and governed by the government for the military purpose. As such these stations are managed with the objective of public welfare in mind rather than a commercial objective in the mind. Thus the programmes and then commercial advertisements are closely watched and controlled. Such types of restrictions may create complexities in the way to promote the product.
(ii) It is extremely difficult to buy overseas commercial T.V. Time – This is very much true that to buy an overseas commercial T.V. time is an extremely difficult task. For example, in Tokyo, there is a usual practice to make maximum use of T.V. media to advertise the product. But the major challenge for most of the marketers is to get proper air time to advertise their products services.
(a) The most of the countries do have limited channels. They usually do not schedule full daytime or late night programs. With having limited broadcasting time, it can afford only less advertising time for the marketers.
(b) In some countries, the government does not afford any programme sponsorship other than spot announcement. It can also create complexities to advertise the product properly. For example, some countries like Denmark, Sweden etc. have completely banned the advertisements on television all together. While some countries like Germany all advertisements only during the certain hours of operators.
(c) In most of the countries, an advertiser has to rely more on media other than television because it is very difficult to get fraction of the available television time.
(i) To use shorter commercials – It is advisable for the marketers to use shorter time to advertise their products or services. It can be helpful for the media to make adjustment accordingly. In United States the majority of the advertising messages ends within 30 seconds, which is useful for both media as well as marketers.
(ii) To plan and purchase T.V. time well in advance – In some countries like Netherlands the T.V. time is booked with a year’s in advance notice. But who so ever is able to get airtime faces other types of problems like commercial interruptions which can create a big problem of clutter.
(iii) New Technology – Some time new technology may be helpful to solve some of the problems related to T.V. time. It can also be helpful to solve some of the problems related to government regulations.
(iv) Satellite T.V. – The Satellite T.V. can be another solution to the problem of T.V. time. Further is also gaining a wider acceptance among the customers. It is observed that T.V. network and cable T.V. are reaching to multiple countries in abroad, where the broadcast generally originates.
The only problem, with the new technology is that the customers are exposed to an identical message in all countries, where an advertisement is direct. But with the introduction of new technology, it may allow an advertiser to beam particular message to different countries in abroad.
Type # 2. Radio:
The Radio media of broadcasting may be said to be the kind of all media in most of the countries. It can be considered to be a real national medium. It is an affordable medium to every class of customers. It is also a free medium to listen the different programs and the cost to handle and maintain it, is also negligible. It is used to penetrate from the highest to lowest level of socio-economic and other demographical variables.
Further the problems like illiteracy has no impact on this medium. It is pertinent to mention here that in some of the markets, the radio, commands the largest portion of advertising expenditures. However the radio media of broadcasting do have wider coverage, in comparison to any other media, but still it faces number of problems and do have variety of complexities.
(i) Threat of Television:
Television is a biggest threat to the radio broadcasting medium. In order to survive and counter the threat posed by television media, it has to adopt certain measures like magazine format by specializing in a particular type of programming.
But in some countries the radio stations may not be specialized in a particular programme formatting and unable to attract the listening audience. Thus it may not be that possible to reach to the target audiences effectively.
(ii) Most of the Radio Stations are Owned and Controlled by the Government:
This is very much true that in most of the countries the radio stations are control, owned and operated by the government. Once the airtime is sold, then it is determined by the sponsor or an independent Jockey.
A certain Jockey may buy air time to broadcast from different stations. He may be promoting his identity by mentioning his name or show title frequently from one station to another station throughout a day.
An advertiser may expect another problem of availability of the media network. In some of the countries, many radio stations use to terminate their broadcasting at an early hour every day. The clutter has become a big problem, because of all these reasons. The programme breaks are very frequent and commercial time is added very much. Sometime the audience considers it an abuse and listeners have adopted the habit to make frequent changes in the station as and when an advertisement appears.
Type # 3. Magazines:
Magazines are also a most popular media, used for the promotion of goods and services in the world market for this purpose. These magazines are for the masses as well as for the marketers. It uses to make possible for advertisers to direct their campaigns to obtain reach and to increase the frequency or both in the international market.
The foreign magazines are not particulars in terms of a particular audience. They never touch their readers closely as the U.S. magazines touches. Furthermore they also lack with the accuracy in comparison to U.S. magazines. For example in Brazil, there are only few magazines in circulation. As a result, it ends with duplication of messages and waste of promotional efforts unless the frequency is the objective.
An international magazine that have regional editions are having the option for international products. These include Times, Business week, New week etc. The local language editions are distributed in case of Readers Digest. For example a shoe company Edmond was able to increase its foreign sales by advertising its product in the international editions of such publications. These magazines can be quite effective for technical and industrial products.
The technical business publications tends to be international in their coverage. These publications ranges from individual industries to worldwide, whereas industrial magazines covers many industries. For example, a trade magazine about Chinese market can be a suitable source for all types of industrial product of the interest of Chinese governments.
In Canada there are more than 1000 technical and trade journal to facilitate the business world and consumers. Almost there is one trade magazine available for each market segment in Canada. It make early to facilitate by covering the entire Canadian market. Furthermore in European market such publications are many time more in comparison to U.S. market.
Type # 4. Direct Mail:
It is significant to mention that direct marketing is a broader term that encompasses the other related terms also. The direct marketing includes the total of all activities, by which a marketer offer the products or services to market segments. He use to take the help of one media or more for information purposes or to get a direct response from an existing present or prospective audience. He can facilitate the same purpose, by mail, telephone or personal visit.
Type # 5. Outdoor Advertising:
Outdoor advertising is an important and frequently used medium for the promotion of products in the overseas markets. An outdoor advertising includes posters, bill boards, roadside signs, store signs and painting bulletins etc. An outdoor advertising serves very well as reminder promotion for established product, because of the fact that it has got a great impact and impressiveness of size and colour.
The big advantage of outdoor advertising is its low cost of labour in painting and low erecting costs for such displays. This is considered to be a free medium, because mostly an advertiser can put its posters anywhere on the walls, bus stops, railway stations, stickers, trees etc. without paying for it. The advertisers are also involved in putting their posters to replace other advertisers.
This medium for the promotion of products and services is dominant in Europe and Canada particularly. Such medium is also very popular in those countries where commercialization on television is not that popular. For example in Belgium, it is most common medium used for the promotion of the products. Another example may be of Saudi Arabia, where outdoor and transit posters account for more than aquinter of overall expenditure of all media spending. An advertiser use to change its outdoor messages frequently with having certain changes over it.
(i) The illustrations should be large.
(ii) The words should be kept to a minimum.
(iii) The contrast colours should be used to make the message more prominent.
(iv) The principle of “What must be described” should be followed.
(v) The principle of “What can be described” should be discouraged.
(vi) Having all Capital Letters may be difficult, therefore should be avoided.
The new technologies have added new dimension in the field of advertising, such as back lighters option, three dimensional pictures, reflective disks and day-gloomy paints can contribute a lot for outdoor advertising as to promote the products or services.
Type # 6. Periodicals:
The periodicals do help to promote the product and services. These include, Business Week, Economist, Euromoney Fortune, News week, National Geographic etc. Majority of these periodicals appeals to the some market segment in the overseas market. There are many other magazines which make the similar appeal to the specific segment. It includes cosmopolitan, Elle and other trade and technical publications, which command the small but dedicate relationship. Another way to target the business audience is to target the in-flight magazines.
Type # 7. Cinema:
Cinema is one of an important media to promote the product or services in India. However, it is a declining medium to promote the product and services in western countries since last few years.
The following are few problems with this type of media in the international market:
i. Problem of choice of cinema – The problem of choice of cinema and specific feature film, is a main problem in this type of media for which a marketer wishes to advertise his company.
ii. Lack of control over target market
Type # 8. Newspaper:
This is a fact that almost in all urban areas of the world, the people have their access to daily newspaper. There is a problem with advertisers to choose right media for the advertisement of their product. In some countries big cities support numerous daily newspaper. It results into dividing the readership market. In communist countries, the newspapers are controlled by the government. The newspapers tend to carry those news items, for which the particular government deems to express some moral and social values.
The most of the countries do have English newspapers in addition to their local language daily newspapers. The English newspapers are patterned generally more, with an emphasis on world, government and business news.
ii. Reader of upper and middle class
iv. Government itself
For example the Asian Wall Street Journal is almost to make available all the necessary input of economic information to businessmen, politicians, government and researchers. It is not considered a newspaper for the masses but concerned with specific populations. It is pertinent to mention here that to find a national newspaper is a troublesome task. Because now a days every newspaper try to focus somewhat on local or regional news. The advertisements in foreign newspaper is a big question to solve.
Advertising Media Types – Press Advertisement, Advertisement through Broadcasting, Cinema, Board Advertisement, Fairs and Exhibitions and Mail Advertisement
Media of advertisement is meant by the methods by which a message from advertisement is accessed to the customers. All media like newspapers, magazines, radio, cinema, advertisement board etc., are some of the sources of advertisement.
A brief description of these methods is as under:
1. Press Advertising:
An advertisement supplying news, stories and other recreation materials in the written form with the common public through newspapers, magazines, posters etc., is called Press Advertisement, Main advertisement means falling under press advertisement are described below –
Newspaper is a most developed and mostly used means for advertisement. Even after the development of radio and television, there is no reduction in its use. It is such a medium of advertisement which can be used successfully for the advertisement of small and big products i.e., from heavy machines to the needle.
It is in vogue particularly because all poor, rich, businessmen and salaried employers read the newspapers. These are published in different languages and areas. These are helpful for the advertisement of the products before the public using different dialects or residing in particular area.
Magazines are the best means of advertisement. These are of different kinds. These can be weekly, monthly, quarterly and half yearly. On the basis of income also, some magazines are for children, some others for youth and some are for persons of all age groups.
On the basis of subject, some magazines provide recreation while other provide a particular knowledge. A manufacturer has to select any appropriate magazine for his product worth use of children. Such product should be advertised in the magazines of children and in commercial load if it is of commercial importance.
The main advantage of advertisement in a magazine is that a person reads it several times and utilizes his leisures. Thus, the advertisement conies repeatedly before his eyes.
A message to be advertised under poster is printed on paper, cardboard or on tin. It is affixed on the walls and distributed among the common public. A poster should be used for the items of daily use. The theatres also use posters frequently. It is a good and effective mean to advertise any certain and limited field.
2. Advertisement through Broadcasting:
Radio and Television fall under it. Both the means have particular importance in the modern era. Both these means are frequently being used for the advertisement.
Radio is one of the most important and effective mean for advertisement. No other mean as good as radio is existed if it is used in a systematic manner. Some advertisement through radio are – Cibaca Toothpaste through Cibaca Geetamala, Jeep torch and cell through the program ‘Jauhar Ke Jawab’, advertisement of sun-prized clothes through ‘Sanforized Ke Mehman’ program.
As radio is with the public as a whole, the scope of advertisement is increasing day today. Radio advertisement is mostly made for the products of daily use.
Advertisement through T.V. is rising day today as in the countries of the developing world. Through the exhibition of small pictures relating to the product, it can be made popular in the market.
The success of advertisement through this mean depends on the newness and content of recreation in the picture shown. The pictures exhibited in the T.V. require change time to time and make more interesting.
An advertisement through slides and show pictures can be made in the theatre. The advertisement made through this medium impresses the spectators immediately. As this means of advertisement is costlier, only large institutions are exercising it. Cinema- halls are limited to the towns only. Hence, a smaller part of population is covered through this medium in India.
4. Board Advertisement:
Under the board advertisement there fall all boards including ordinary boards hung on the shop and the huge boards erected on the main highways of metro cities. The boards are affixed on transportation means.
The well-decorated electric boards and holdings too are included under this advertisement. A board hung on a shop is an important mean to provide information to the customers about the available products in the shop and the policies of the dealer such as – ‘Term Cash’, ‘No Credit’, ‘Fixed Price’ etc.
The boards affixed on the transportation means act as mobile advertisement and the decorated electric boards attract the person strolling on the road at night and thus, impress them very much. The decorated electric boards have their long-term influence on the common public.
5. Fairs and Exhibitions:
The exhibitions and fairs relating to different industries or all industries in metro cities are provisionally arranged in which a number of manufacturers exhibit their products. A huge population visits at these fairs for recreation. The manufacturer can advertise their products in these fairs. The items of daily use and food stuff are advertised through this method.
6. Mail Advertisement:
The price list, diaries, calendar and other gifts are given to the customers by the post so that those may be encouraged for purchase. A number of large institutions send the price list, calendar and other gifts to their buyers.
The Managers are expected to select any one means for the advertisement of such products. While sorting out the means, it is worth to keep in mind that whatever mean for advertisement is selected, it should give a message to maximum customers.